- Application Virtualization
- Blade Server
- Cloud Application
- Cloud Broker
- Cloud Computing
- Cloud Governance
- Cloud Operating System
- Cloud Platform
- Cloud Provider
- Cloud Security
- Cloud Service Provider
- Cloud Standards
- Cloud Storage
- Cloud Virtualization
- Content Delivery Network (CDN)
- Dedicated Servers
- Desktop Virtualization
- Disaster Recovery
- DNS Management
- Enterprise Servers
- Exchange Server
- F5 Load Balancers
- Google Apps
- Green Datacenters
- Hybrid Cloud
- Load Balancing
- Managed Hosting
- Network Security
- Public Cloud
- Secure FTP
- Server Rack
- Server Virtualization
- Virtual Applications
- Virtualization Technology
Allows applications to run on systems that are not natively supported.
Application virtualization is the group of technologies that allow applications to run on systems that are not natively supported. This is done by encapsulating the application in order to provide resources and handle I/O as if it were running on the platform that it was built for. Several modern operating systems make use of application virtualization to support legacy applications, such as running Windows 3.1 applications on Windows Vista.
Virtualization can be used to protect the operating system from poorly written code and remove the requirement for users to have Administrator access to run applications, creating a more stable operating environment. It allows for on-demand application streaming, letting companies deploy their software quickly, without worrying about compatibility issues.
Designed to take up as little space as possible in a server rack.
Blade servers are designed to take up little space as possible in a server rack. To achieve this, blade servers are stripped down to the bare minimum and contain only the necessary parts to be considered a computer. Non-essentials like power cords, cooling units and cables are strung through the server rack, which is called a blade enclosure. Whereas a standard 19-inch server rack could contain 42 units, a blade enclosure of the same size could hold 128 units. Because blade servers are packed so tightly, they require a good cooling unit for a full server rack.
A software application installed on a remote server, accessible via the web.
A cloud application is a software application that is installed on a remote server and can be accessed anywhere via the web. They are never installed on a hard drive. These applications can be accessed from several different platforms including a desktop or laptop computer, mobile phone or tablet PC. This offers many benefits to the user such as savings on cost, convenience with device and location independence, utilization of resources and security, as well as reliability. Apps can be intricate and detailed, or they can be simple.
A middleman between cloud hosting companies and cloud users.
A cloud broker is a middleman between cloud hosting companies and the businesses and individuals that use them. They help clients choose a hosting provider and the service model that works best for their requirements. They can help deploy resources into the cloud and organize the process. They can also combine hosting platforms to give clients a maximum amount of flexibility. Cloud brokers are typically used by larger organizations that need more than just their existing IT departments to implement a cloud solution.
What is Cloud Computing?
Chances are if you were to ask ten people what cloud computing is, you would get ten different answers. The variety of answers can make it frustrating to those trying to learn more. Part of the confusion is because of the numerous ways that cloud services can be used. Therefore, it's best to think of cloud computing in terms of its essential characteristics, service models and deployment models. 
Cloud Computing: Essential Characteristics
- On-demand self-service - A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s provider.
- Broad network access - Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).
- Resource pooling - The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is location independence because the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines.
- Rapid elasticity - Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out and quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.
- Measured Service - Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Cloud Computing: Service Models
Each cloud computing service is scalable, on-demand, cost effective and secure – allowing the end user or client to focus on their business rather than maintaining their software, applications or hardware. Each service model also has its own list of focused cloud computing providers.
- Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) delivers computing infrastructure – typically through a virtualized environment – as a service. It is sometimes references as cloud infrastructure services. This includes basic computer networking, load balancing, content delivery networks, routing, commodity data storage, and virtualized operating system hosting, available in a single bundle and billed as per usage in a utility computing model. This eliminates the need for clients to purchase and procure servers, software, data center space and network equipment. Instead, the client purchases those resources on as an outsourced service.
- Examples of Enterprise IaaS: Bluelock, Terremark, Colt
- Examples of Commodity IaaS: Amazon Web Services, GoGrid, Rackspace
- Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is a combination of a development platform and a solution stack, delivered as a service on-demand via the web. It consumes cloud infrastructure on which software developers can build new applications or extend existing ones without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software and provisioning hosting capabilities.
- Examples: Microsoft Azure, Cloud Foundry, Force.com (Salesforce)
- Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is the application layer of cloud computing, also known as ‘Cloud application services.’ SaaS delivers software that is deployed over the Internet, available to the end user as and when needed. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the end user’s own computer which simplifies maintenance and support. Many SaaS applications are powered by IaaS. Payment can either be as per usage or on a subscription model.
- Examples: Netsuite, Salesforce, Taleo
Cloud Computing: Deployment Models
- Private cloud - The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on- or off-premise.
- Community cloud - The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on- or off-premise.
- Public cloud - The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.
- Hybrid cloud - The cloud infrastructure is two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enable data and application portability (e.g. cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds).
Where does Bluelock fit into the cloud ecosystem?
Among the growing list of cloud computing companies, Bluelock differentiates itself as an award-winning provider of enterprise cloud hosting solutions (Infrastructure-as-a-Service).
Hosted in the public cloud, Bluelock Virtual Datacenters help companies get started quickly and deal with the unknown, while delivering the freedom to change their minds as IT needs evolve. By leveraging VMware technology, Bluelock is able to provide certified VMware vCloud Datacenter services to the enterprise that are fully compatible with their existing VMware investments, enabling a hybrid cloud computing strategy. This approach provides a common management and security model that enables complete workload portability between internal data centers and the Bluelock Virtual Datacenters.
 Mell, P, & Grance, T. U.S. Department of Commerce - National Institute of Standards and Technology, Computer Security Division. (2009). The nist definition of cloud computing (15). Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/
Applies policies, processes and procedures to the use of cloud services.
Cloud governance is an infrastructure management solution that applies policies, processes and procedures to the use of cloud services. Governance is comprised of security procedures and technology, but refers to the larger concept that includes levels of transparency, portability and regulatory procedures that come with the development of cloud architectures.
Cloud governance helps secure and access data that’s stored on remote servers as well. Cloud governance can also refer to the practice of managing cloud services, much like how the term "information governance" is used. Though multi-tenancy provides a roadblock to complete integration, it is often treated as part of existing management processes and services.
Cloud Operating System
Software that combines a browser with a basic operating system.
A cloud operating system is software that combines a browser with a basic operating system designed to holistically manage vast combinations of infrastructures as a dynamic operating environment. The infrastructures that the cloud operating system manages are CPUs, storage and networking. The cloud operating system functions like a basic operating system that manages an individual machine; however it actually manages the complexity of a datacenter. This provides users access to a number of web applications and data on the web rather than on a hard drive.
A system in which software applications run in the cloud.
A cloud platform is a system in which software applications run in the cloud and/or use services provided by the cloud.
The cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS) model is a hosted service that manages the deployment of software applications by a service provider. The client provides the software, but it is often built off of pre-existing models provided by the cloud platform host. These services eliminate the cost and complexity of the management of the underlying hardware and software layers.
A service provider that offers customers cloud computing service.
A cloud provider is a service provider that offers customers some component of cloud computing service such as storage or software services. These services are accessible by either a private or public cloud, which allows the user to access the storage or software via the Internet. It can also be a hybrid cloud, which is a combination of the two. Cloud providers can also be referred to as cloud service providers or CSPs for short.
A set of policies, technologies and controls that safeguards information.
Cloud Security is a set of policies, technologies and controls that allows users to safeguard their information while utilizing cloud services. Cloud security is designed to protect individual privacy and company trade secrets in an environment where virtualization, the dynamic movement of workloads and reliance on third party providers for IT procedures stands to threaten the safety of sensitive information. There are no cloud security standards, so policies often must meet federal regulations, depending on the type of information and the industry. Federal regulations are put into place to ensure that user data is secure.
Cloud Service Provider
Organizations that provide support services for cloud customers.
Service providers are organizations, usually third party or outsourced suppliers, that provide comprehensive support services for their customers in the cloud. These organizations provide their customers with hosting options, usually based on size and flexibility needed, but also based on what cloud applications they may need. They host servers in off-site locations that companies can store their data on and then access via the Web. Cloud service providers often offer support for their customers, ensuring they can shrink their IT budget and reallocate assets.
Would help users be able to develop an application and deploy it with any vendor.
Because there are so many different cloud providers building their infrastructures using wildly different technologies, much of it developed internally, there are no widely agreed upon standards for cloud computing at this time. Many organizations are working towards a set of standards, however, it may be several years before a clear leader emerges. A set of cloud standards would help users be able to develop an application for the cloud and deploy it with any vendor they choose, allowing them to switch to another vendor without having to rewrite their program to use a different set of APIs. Cloud standards, though far off, will hopefully begin emerging soon and give cloud clients more choice in their providers.
A way to back up data on a remote server.
Cloud storage is a way to back up data on a remote server with the ability to synchronize.
Typically in cloud storage, third parties, who operate large data centers, store data in virtualized pools of storage allowing the user to then store files and data objects. Cloud storage is a common cloud service that is often used as a part of data recovery. Individual users also seek out cloud storage because of its ease of use and because it often carries a negligible price tag.
Technology used to build a cloud server.
Cloud virtualization is the technology used to build a cloud server, connecting multiple servers on a network and acquisitioning their resources based on need. If one physical server doesn't have enough resources to complete a task, whether that's CPU time, RAM or disk space, resources from another server or group of servers can be added, scaling in real-time. Through cloud virtualization, hosting providers can provide server resources as a utility rather than a single product. This means that clients can pay for the resources they need and use, increasing their supply as their demand increases.
Hybrid cloud that uses the dynamic deployment.
A cloudburst is a type of hybrid cloud that uses the dynamic deployment of an application that runs in a private or internal cloud that bursts into a public cloud in order to compensate for the spike in demand for computing capacity.
A cloudburst contains an economic benefit along with it, which allows the user to pay for extra resources solely when necessary, not upfront. It’s a common solution for businesses that see a traffic spike around the holidays or at a certain time of day. Cloudbursts are the epitome of flexibility in the cloud.
A software application that runs exclusively via the web.
Cloudware is another name for webware, which is a type of software application that runs exclusively via the web. Cloudware relies on remote servers to host these applications and serve them to users. It falls under the type of cloud computing known as Software as a Service (SaaS). It can also be a part of “thin client devices” that seem like they’re running off a device, but are actually coming from a remote server.
Content Delivery Network (CDN)
Relies on networked servers to access and serve quickly, reliably.
A content delivery network relies on networked servers that can be linked across multiple datacenters to access and serve content quickly and reliably. CDNs are focused on high performance, which means they need to have enough computing power to not only store large amounts of data, they also have to reach it quickly. CDNs have become very common since videos, multimedia, applications, live streaming and large scripts became a huge part of Web 2.0, requiring servers to process data more quickly.
A single client, or single task, dedicated machine.
A dedicated server is one in which a single client has control of all of the processes on the physical server machine or in which one physical machine is dedicated to a single task, such as hosting a website. Because the server only performs one function, it will likely be less vulnerable to attacks and will not have to split its resources among multiple users, allowing it to consistently perform the same duties. With a dedicated server, clients can choose their operating system and, to an extent, the hardware of the machine itself. There are generally multiple levels of dedicated hosting services, running the gamut from a provider-managed machine to a fully client-managed server.
The simulation of one computer or operating system on another.
Desktop virtualization is simply the simulation of one computer or operating system on another, usually a server. Users can connect to the server from a thin client, laptop or even a smartphone and run the full desktop and all of their applications, with their files intact, from anywhere they have a connection to the server. This allows the user to run hardware-intensive programs from any device and gives companies the ability to quickly roll out new workstations without needing to buy full computers for each user. Desktop virtualization can also be run on a laptop or desktop, allowing the user to access multiple operating systems on the same computer without requiring a reboot.
The process of salvaging information or technology infrastructure.
Disaster Recovery is the process of salvaging information or technology infrastructure from physical or virtual disaster. Whether it’s because of a natural disaster or human error, servers aren’t indestructible. When the worst happens, disaster recovery plans can help keep data secure and companies running.
Disaster recovery often relies on pre-planning measures like saving data to an off-site server periodically or even having the main server synced to an off-site clone. Some measures can be taken after a disaster in the form of data recovery, but it’s often costly and not as effective. The best disaster recovery plans come into fruition long before disaster strikes.
Allows domain owners to control Domain Name Systems records and server clusters.
DNS management is a service that allows domain owners to control Domain Name Systems records and server clusters. The Domain Name System is a database that maintains domain name hierarchy and translates domain names into IP addresses and vice versa. It relies on the use of hierarchical DNS records, each of which contains specific information. DNS management permits domain owners to indicate the destination server for the services offered by their hosts and transfer those services from one server to the next in the event that the original destination server cannot perform. Today, one website can command the services of multiple servers, which makes DNS management crucial.
Computer hardware or software that serves the needs of an enterprise business
An enterprise server refers to a computer hardware and/or software that serves the needs of an enterprise business or company as opposed to a single user, department or specialized application. This is unlike traditional servers, which perform computational tasks on behalf of clients that run on the same computer or connect through a network (i.e. email servers, print servers, gaming servers, etc.). The term can also refer to smaller, UNIX-based servers with enterprise-wide program management capabilities.
Designed to work with any Web browser and integrates with Exchange Online.
Microsoft Exchange is both a hosted email application and a cloud service provider. The email client runs on the Exchange servers along with calendar and contacts applications as a part of Exchange Online. They’re often used as a business solution for company-standard applications. The server side of Microsoft Exchange is designed to work with any Web browser and integrates with Exchange Online. Together, they provide access to the Microsoft apps through a company server or via the Web.
F5 Load Balancers
Distributing a workload across multiple resources.
Load balancing is a method of distributing a workload across multiple resources (computers, clusters, CPUs, disk drives, etc.) to achieve the best possible resource management. The load balancer acts as a reverse proxy that distributes traffic from a network or application across multiple servers, in order to increase the reliability and capacity of applications by spreading out concurrent users. By separating the workload over multiple resources, the network can achieve maximum throughput, minimal response time and avoid a system overload.
Bluelock has partnered with F5 to provide the BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™ VE as a virtual appliance to meet your enterprise load balancing needs. The appliance lives in your Bluelock Virtual Datacenter (VDC), giving you complete control over F5's most celebrated features.
Independently customize Web applications within the same custom-made domain name.
Google Apps is a service provided by Google to consumers which consists of the use of several Web applications such as Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Groups, Google Docs and Google Talk. With Google apps, individuals are able to independently customize a wide span of Web applications within the same custom-made domain name. Included in Google Apps are several safety features which secure personal information and enable the user to control how they share information and with whom. These features allow users to increase their productivity and to stay connected with others.
Implement tools like energy efficient servers and power management applications.
Though cloud computing in itself saves energy and minimizes e-waste, green datacenters take environmental consciousness to the next level and implement tools like energy efficient servers, power management applications and more. They also focus on the physical location of the data center, using energy efficient lighting, solar panels for natural energy and waste recycling. Green datacenters are quickly becoming more and more popular as they often cost less to run in the long run, even though the start-up costs are sometimes higher.
Resources are managed in both in private clouds and externally.
A hybrid cloud is where an organization provides and manages part of its resources in a private cloud while it also provides others externally. Many businesses choose to house part of their own resources in-house because they already own servers, or because they have information so sensitive they’re afraid to host it off-site. It is also often used simply as a way to have the scalability of the cloud while still utilizing in-house resources.
Used to spread a workload across a network of computers.
In computer networking, load balancers are used to spread a workload across a network of computers, achieving optimal efficiency and preventing overloading of any one component of the network. It can be used to provide redundancy in a network, reallocating the work if any portion of the system fails. Load balancing can also be used to bring more servers online if the network is inundated with traffic, quickly increasing available resources. It may also be used to protect against DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks by preventing servers from attempting to connect before the TCP handshake is completed or to act as a firewall, preventing unauthorized connections to servers.
Flexible type of dedicated Internet hosting.
Managed hosting is a more flexible type of dedicated Internet hosting wherein a client leases an entire server as opposed to sharing the space on a single server with other clients. Managed hosting still offers the client control over the server, allowing them to choose the OS, hardware and component programs, but they don't administer the server themselves. Instead, the host takes care of all of the upkeep of the operating system, applying security patches and performing OS updates. The primary objective of managed hosting is removing the need for clients to continually administrate and secure their servers, thereby freeing the client to focus on the essential components of their site (e.g. content, marketing, etc.).
All the activities and policies to prevent a compromise of network integrity.
Network security is comprised of all the activities and policies put into place by a network administrator, organization, enterprise or institution to prevent forbidden access, misuse of information or any other untoward acts that compromise the integrity and progression of operations. Security begins with authentication procedures (usually with a username and password) and spans a wide swath of preventative measures designed to monitor unauthorized access, ward off attacks, avoid viruses, stop data interception and otherwise keep information on the network safe.
Resources are made available to general public through a service provider.
A public cloud is a cloud computing model in which resources such as applications and storage are made available to the general public by a service provider via the web. Many times the service providers own and operate the infrastructure and do not offer direct connectivity. Generally these services are offered on a pay-per-use model, which consists of clients paying for resources as they use them, or at no charge.
Uses Secure Shell network protocol for secure data communication to transfer files.
Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is a program that uses Secure Shell network protocol for secure data communication to transfer files over the Internet or any TCP-based network. SFTP protects passwords and sensitive information by encrypting commands and data before they are transmitted over the network. Though SFTP performs the same actions as FTP, they are different protocols and a standard FTP client cannot communicate with an SFTP server. Similarly, an FTP server will not accept connections from a client that supports SFTP.
Frames that hold groups of servers.
Server racks are the frames that hold groups of servers. One unit, abbreviated U, is 1.75 inches and racks are typically described by the units they hold. An industry-standard 19-inch rack holds 42 units, though racks can easily be found anywhere from 4U to 48U. Rack-mounted servers are typically 1U or 2U, though they can easily be up to 4U.
The vertical layout and standardization of racks allows many servers to be fit into a single cabinet and organized for best efficiency. Racks can be configured to be wall-mounted or freestanding. Companies that house their own servers usually make use of space-saving wall mounted server racks, while cloud providers or those with a large amount of servers can opt for free-standing servers and fill the room with them.
Multiple services can be run from the same physical server or computer.
Server virtualization is a technology whereby multiple services can be run from the same physical server or computer. A hypervisor, the program that interfaces with the virtual machines and the hardware, is first installed on the server. After that, whenever a new virtual server instance is started, the hypervisor allocates resources to it, increasing or decreasing as the server host requires.
This technology allows one physical server to perform multiple duties, preventing an inefficient use of the hardware. Server virtualization allows multiple clients to share the same physical server, each paying for only a portion of the resources and upkeep of the machine, or, in the cloud, allows users to requisition the resources of multiple machines for a single, high use server.
What is a vApp?
vApp is short for Virtual Application. According to the vSphere Basic System Administration Guide, “A vApp is a container, like a resource pool, that can contain one or more virtual machines. In addition, a vApp also shares some functionality with virtual machines. A vApp can power on and power off, and can also be cloned.” That definition can be confusing and does not really explain the full power of a vApp over a resource pool or a folder.
How do I pronounce vApp?
As fun as it is to simply call them “vapps”, the common pronunciation is “vee-app.”
Are vApps exclusive to VMware?
Despite the heavy use of vApps in VMware vSphere, VMware vCloud Director and the vCloud Datacenter Service, vApps are actually defined and governed by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) packaging standard called the Open Virtualization Format (OVF).
vApps sound a lot like folders?
They do, but a folder within Virtual Center, while useful for grouping Virtual Machines (VMs) together and making management easier, is pretty limited. Putting VMs together in a folder organizes them better but does not establish common characteristics like networking, security, or enable management controls like cloning, stopping, starting, start-up precedence or timing. A vApp adds all of these capabilities in the form of meta data that is stored and managed for the vApp itself and applies to all VMs within the vApp.
For example, if you wanted to create a specific network like 10.10.10.150.x for all of the VMs to use, add a DHCP service in the vApp to serve IP addresses from that IP range and configure the vShield firewall to only allow RDP (TCP 3389) you can set that all up and it will be applied and enforced for any existing VMs in the vApp and any that you might add later.
Is a vApp a Resource Group?
The simple answer is no. However, vApps can live inside of Resource Groups just like Virtual Machines do. They can also live inside of catalogs but we’ll get to that later. The cool thing is that a vApp can exist inside of a Resource Group.
How do vApps work within a Resource Group?
vApps that exist inside of a particular Resource Group are subject to all capacity, configuration, limitations and policies that govern that Resource Group. If the Resource group only has 10 Gigahertz, the vApp will be able to use and will also be limited to that capacity. If there is more than one vApp in the Resource Group, they will contest with each other for those resources. If the Resource Group is configured for High Availability failover, then if the hardware upon which the vApp is running fails, the whole vApp will failover. If the Resource Group is configured for hardware affinity (it has to run on a certain server or servers) then the vApp will be forced to stay on those servers.
When do I use a vApp versus a Folder or a Resource Group?
|Building applications that require more than one VM||x|
|Building applications that require custom security||x|
|Building applications that require custom networking||x|
|Building applications that require custom startup parameters||x|
|Building applications to be stored and provisioned from a catalog||x|
|Building applications and VMs for the cloud||x||x|
|Organizing similar VMs and/or vApps to simplify management||x|
|Organizing large numbers of VMs and/or vApps to simplify management||x|
|Creating pools of hardware resources (CPU/RAM)||x|
|Creating pools of hardware resources that require affinity||x|
|Creating pools of hardware resources that require failover||x|
Why vApps rock:
Unique feature differences between vApps and resources pools or folders:
- Rapid provisioning - Provisioning a vApp from your catalog is extremely simple. In a few mouse clicks, regardless of whether the vApp contains one or one hundred virtual machines, you can start the provisioning process and vSphere or vCloud Director will do the rest of the work.
- Complex provisioning - Because all of the networking, startup and security information is contained inside of the vApp, when you provision a new vApp all of that is automatically set up for you. This allows for extremely consistent deployments of complex applications. You simply configure it once and then clone as many copies as you need.
- Self-service for end users - Services like the VMware vCloud Datacenter Service from Bluelock and products like VMware’s vCloud Request Manager make extensive use of vApps to simplify the way that self-service works for end users. The systems administrator can create the initial vApp and then, through the web interface in vCloud Director or Request Manager, provision their own copy of the already tested and configured vApp into their own Virtual Datacenter. This works regardless of whether their Virtual Datacenter is hosted local or in a public vCloud like Bluelock.
Create a simulated version of something on a server or across a network.
Virtualization technology is used to create a simulated version of something (an application, hardware platform, operating system or other device) on a server or across a network. Hardware virtualization allows for the creation of a virtual machine that acts as a real machine with a full-fledged operating system.
On the physical machine, however, that virtual machine is merely a set of files activated and controlled by the hypervisor or Virtual Machine Monitor. Storage virtualization creates a storage system that appears entirely different to the user than it does to the machine, allowing administrators to easily apportion storage capacity and allowing the user to easily comprehend it.